by Veronica Buckley Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 498 pp., $35.00 At Versailles during the night of October 9, 1683, three months after the death of his wife, Maria Teresa of Spain, Louis XIV, King of France and Navarre, married Mme de Maintenon, the former governess of his children by his recently discarded mistress, the marquise de Montespan. Maria Theresa died in 1683, whereupon Louis remarked that she had never caused him unease on any other occasion. To break the Portuguese dominance there, Louis sent Jesuit missionaries to the court of the Kangxi Emperor in 1685: Jean de Fontaney, Joachim Bouvet, Jean-François Gerbillon, Louis Le Comte, and Claude de Visdelou. Additionally, government officials could not be excommunicated for acts committed in pursuance of their duties. Although it sanctioned slavery, it attempted to humanise the practice by prohibiting the separation of families. This belief intensified the nobles' resentment. [89] As governess, she was one of very few people permitted to speak to him as an equal, without limits. With his excellent memory, Louis could then see who attended him at court and who was absent, facilitating the subsequent distribution of favours and positions. Furthermore, they believed their traditional influence and authority was being usurped by the recently ennobled bureaucrats (the Noblesse de Robe, or "nobility of the robe"), who administered the kingdom and on whom the monarchy increasingly began to rely. Moreover, the significant reduction in civil wars and aristocratic rebellions during his reign are seen by these historians as the result of Louis' consolidation of royal authority over feudal elites. On 29 August a man who claimed to have a miracle cure, one Brun, was granted permission to approach the royal bed. By the early 1680s, Louis had greatly augmented French influence in the world. In addition, France also contested shorter wars, such as the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions. Queen Anne played the most important role in defeating the Fronde because she wanted to transfer absolute authority to her son. In the general settlement, Philip V retained Spain and its colonies, while Austria received the Spanish Netherlands and divided Spanish Italy with Savoy. It is now time that I govern them myself. The principal taxes included the aides and douanes (both customs duties), the gabelle (a tax on salt), and the taille (a tax on land). Before its dissolution eight months later, the Assembly had accepted the Declaration of the Clergy of France, which increased royal authority at the expense of papal power. [106] In 1661, Royal of the Academy was founded by Louis to further his ambition. The French monarchy reached its height during the reign of the Louis XIV (r. 1643, officially from 1661 to his death in 1715). If he could not achieve this within the year, the war would resume. [91] This marriage, though never announced or publicly discussed, was an open secret and lasted until his death. The Death of Louis XIV La Mort de Louis XIV. To the maritime powers of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic, this would have been as undesirable as a Franco-Spanish union.[87]. The main weakness arose from an old bargain between the French crown and nobility: the king might raise taxes without consent if only he refrained from taxing the nobles. It can be used without an Internet connection. On the morning of 1 September he died. Both of these royal houses were descended in the male line from Henri II, Prince of Conde, a second cousin of French King Louis XIII (the father of Louis XIV) in the male line. Later, the Battle of Ramillies delivered the Low Countries to the Allies, and the Battle of Turin forced Louis to evacuate Italy, leaving it open to Allied forces. Although a part of Alsace, Strasbourg was not part of Habsburg-ruled Alsace and was thus not ceded to France in the Peace of Westphalia. Pierre Beauchamp, his private dance instructor, was ordered by Louis to come up with a notation system to record ballet performances, which he did with great success. All of Louis' tears and his supplications to his mother did not make her change her mind. This is the start of the slow agony of the greatest king of France, surrounded by his relatives and doctors. [53] The wars were very expensive but defined Louis XIV's foreign policy, and his personality shaped his approach. Without royal approval, bishops could not leave France, and appeals could not be made to the Pope. Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, had to flee to the Spanish Netherlands. Marriage of Louis XIV of France and Maria Theresa of Spain. On 14 May 1643, with Louis XIII dead, Queen Anne had her husband's will annulled by the Parlement de Paris (a judicial body comprising mostly nobles and high clergymen). These acts sealed his doom. For example, he patronised the arts, encouraged industry, fostered trade and commerce, and sponsored the founding of an overseas empire. In their place, he raised commoners or the more recently ennobled bureaucratic aristocracy (the "nobility of the robe"). Format: DVD. Depending on one's views of the war's inevitability, Louis acted reasonably or arrogantly. [69], French armies were generally victorious throughout the war because of Imperial commitments in the Balkans, French logistical superiority, and the quality of French generals such as Condé's famous pupil, François Henri de Montmorency-Bouteville, duc de Luxembourg. We'll Always Give You Something to Smile About. Tapestries could be allegorical, depicting the elements or seasons, or realist, portraying royal residences or historical events. Philippe II governed from his residence in the Palais-Royal and moved the young king into the Tuileries. In defiance of custom, which would have made Queen Anne the sole Regent of France, the king decreed that a regency council would rule on his son's behalf. Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. 3.7 out of 5 stars 19 ratings. The King was thus portrayed largely in majesty or at war, notably against Spain. In 1679, he dismissed his foreign minister Simon Arnauld, marquis de Pomponne, because he was seen as having compromised too much with the allies. This anticipated the formation of the 1658 League of the Rhine, leading to the further diminution of Imperial power. Execution of Louis XVI, 21 January 1793 - YouTube. [129][b][130], He did say, "Every time I appoint someone to a vacant position, I make a hundred unhappy and one ungrateful. In the end, however, despite renewed tensions with the Camisards of south-central France at the end of his reign, Louis may have helped ensure that his successor would experience fewer instances of the religion-based disturbances that had plagued his forebears. Watch later. Louis secured permanent French sovereignty over all of Alsace, including Strasbourg, and established the Rhine as the Franco-German border (as it is to this day). Louis agreed to withdraw his support for James Stuart, son of James II and pretender to the throne of Great Britain, and ceded Newfoundland, Rupert's Land, and Acadia in the Americas to Anne. It is considered that, at all times, he provided his roles with sufficient majesty and drew the limelight with his flair for dancing. Legal matters did not escape Louis' attention, as is reflected in the numerous "Great Ordinances" he enacted. Leopold viewed French expansion into the Rhineland as an increasing threat, especially after their seizure of the strategic Duchy of Lorraine in 1670. The Sun King as Louis XIV is often referred to created a model for absolutism, made France Europe's leading political and military … The next days, the king keeps fulfilling his duties and obligations, but his sleep is troubled and he has a serious fever. The Death of Louis XIV. Reforms introduced by Louvois, the Secretary of War, helped maintain large field armies that could be mobilised much quicker, allowing them to mount offensives in early spring before their opponents were ready. Louis is a member of the House of Bourbon, a branch of the Capetian dynasty and of the Robertians. In 1648, Anne and Mazarin attempted to tax members of the Parlement de Paris. Condé's family was close to Anne at that time, and he agreed to help her attempt to restore the king's authority. His mother A new reign, which would be almost as long (1715-1774), was about to begin: that of Louis XV. Most European rulers accepted Philip as king, some reluctantly. "Sun King" and "Le Roi Soleil" redirect here. The French film La mort de Louis XIV was shown in the U.S. with the translated title The Death of Louis XIV (2016). In addition to portraits, Louis commissioned at least 20 statues of himself in the 1680s, to stand in Paris and provincial towns as physical manifestations of his rule. This idealisation of the monarch continued in later works, which avoided depictions of the effect of the smallpox that Louis contracted in 1647. An exhibition on the death and funeral of the Sun King, 300 years after his death. They also maintain that events occurring almost 80 years after his death were not reasonably foreseeable to Louis, and that in any case, his successors had sufficient time to initiate reforms of their own.[119]. Responding to petitions, Louis initially excluded Protestants from office, constrained the meeting of synods, closed churches outside of Edict-stipulated areas, banned Protestant outdoor preachers, and prohibited domestic Protestant migration. Share. Copy link. It was Condé's sister who pushed him to turn against the queen. By the winter of 1708–09, he was willing to accept peace at nearly any cost. [75] In any case, peace in 1697 was desirable to Louis, since France was exhausted from the costs of the war. To support the reorganized and enlarged army, the panoply of Versailles, and the growing civil administration, the king needed a good deal of money. [120], Nonetheless, Louis has also received praise. [34], Rapid French advance led to a coup that toppled De Witt and brought William III to power. The Parlement found him guilty and sentenced him to exile. This allocated Spain, the Low Countries, and the Spanish colonies to the Archduke. The War of Devolution did not focus on the payment of the dowry; rather, the lack of payment was what Louis XIV used as a pretext for nullifying Maria Theresa's renunciation of her claims, allowing the land to "devolve" to him. With the exception of the current Royal Chapel (built near the end of his reign), the palace achieved much of its current appearance after the third building campaign, which was followed by an official move of the royal court to Versailles on 6 May 1682. Louis' wife was Philip IV's daughter by his first marriage, while the new king of Spain, Charles II, was his son by a subsequent marriage. Esthetically, The Death of Louis XIV is genius, and as mannered and opulent as the long, long reign of the Sun King himself. The one of his only son, the person supposed to become King as Louis XV after him, was particularly awful. The final phases of the War of the Spanish Succession demonstrated that the Allies could not maintain the Archduke Charles in Spain just as surely as France could not retain the entire Spanish inheritance for Philip V. The Allies were definitively expelled from central Spain by the Franco-Spanish victories at the Battles of Villaviciosa and Brihuega in 1710. Do not imitate me, but be a peaceful prince, and may you apply yourself principally to the alleviation of the burdens of your subjects. [22], During this period, Louis fell in love with Mazarin's niece Marie Mancini, but Anne and Mazarin ended the king's infatuation by sending Mancini away from court to be married in Italy. [42] Then, in 1682, after the reception of the Moroccan embassy of Mohammed Tenim in France, Moulay Ismail, Sultan of Morocco, allowed French consular and commercial establishments in his country. Thus, on his deathbed, Louis' heir was his five-year-old great-grandson, Louis, Duke of Anjou, Burgundy's younger son. France also overran most of the Duchy of Savoy after the battles of Marsaglia and Staffarde in 1693. He reputedly had more, but the difficulty in fully documenting all such births restricts the list only to the better-known and/or legitimised. [21] However, Louis' coming-of-age and subsequent coronation deprived them of the Frondeurs' pretext for revolt. Louis foresaw an underaged heir and sought to restrict the power of his nephew Philip II, Duke of Orléans, who, as his closest surviving legitimate relative in France, would likely become regent to the prospective Louis XV. King Louis XIV was the Sun King as he preferred to be referred to, as he believed he was sent by God personally to rule France. [128] It was widely repeated but also denounced as apocryphal by the early 19th century. The disasters of the war were so great that, in 1709, France came close to losing all the advantages gained over the preceding century. To rectify the situation, Louis chose Jean-Baptiste Colbert as Controller-General of Finances in 1665. . Warfare defined Louis's foreign policy and his personality shaped his approach. On January 21, 1793, a public execution will be displayed, Louis XVI will be guillotined in the Palace de la Revolution. [135][136] He named it after Louis IX and intended it as a reward for outstanding officers. Vehemently anti-French, William (now William III of England) pushed his new kingdoms into war, thus transforming the League of Augsburg into the Grand Alliance. Two quick notes. . [citation needed] France retained Île-Saint-Jean and Île Royale, and Louis acquired a few minor European territories, such as the Principality of Orange and the Ubaye Valley, which covered transalpine passes into Italy. As tensions mounted, Louis decided to acknowledge James Stuart, the son of James II, as king of England on the latter's death, infuriating William III. La Mort de Louis XIV. August 1715. It was headed by the highest-ranking French nobles, among them Louis' uncle Gaston, Duke of Orléans and first cousin Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier, known as la Grande Mademoiselle; Princes of the Blood such as Condé, his brother Armand de Bourbon, Prince of Conti, and their sister the Duchess of Longueville; dukes of legitimised royal descent, such as Henri, Duke of Longueville, and François, Duke of Beaufort; so-called "foreign princes" such as Frédéric Maurice, Duke of Bouillon, his brother Marshal Turenne, and Marie de Rohan, Duchess of Chevreuse; and scions of France's oldest families, such as François de La Rochefoucauld. Even while French Catholic leaders exulted, Pope Innocent XI still argued with Louis over Gallicanism and criticised the use of violence. Composers and musicians such as Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jacques Champion de Chambonnières, and François Couperin thrived. In 1661, the treasury verged on bankruptcy. To be of the ‘Marlys’, meaning to be one of few allowed to follow the King to his ‘summer house’ was a thing sought by many and only achieved by few. [78] Charles II acknowledged that his empire could only remain undivided by bequeathing it entirely to a Frenchman or an Austrian. [94], Towards the middle and the end of his reign, the centre for the King's religious observances was usually the Chapelle Royale at Versailles. Plot Summary | Add Synopsis The Spanish marriage would be very important both for its role in ending the war between France and Spain, because many of the claims and objectives of Louis' foreign policy for the next 50 years would be based upon this marriage, and because it was through this marriage that the Spanish throne would ultimately be delivered to the House of Bourbon (which holds it to this day). He produced no children, however, and consequently had no direct heirs. French diplomacy secured Bavaria, Portugal, and Savoy as Franco-Spanish allies.[83]. A serious fever erupts, which marks the beginning of the agony of the greatest King of France. He is often seen as the typical example of absolutism. As the Thirty Years' War came to an end, a civil war known as the Fronde (after the slings used to smash windows) erupted in France. All these events were witnessed by Louis and largely explained his later distrust of Paris and the higher aristocracy. Louis' strategy would be a personal, absolutist rule, typified by his famous statement "I am the state (L'etat, c'est moi)." The Dutch captured Pondichéry in 1693, but a 1697 French raid on the Spanish treasure port of Cartagena, Spain, yielded a fortune of 10,000,000 livres. Britain gained the most from the treaty, but the final terms were much more favourable to France than those being discussed in peace negotiations in 1709 and 1710. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history. Pale and in obvious distress, she was put to bed, but her pains were so severe that she believed she must have been poisoned and asked for an antidote. Those Protestants who had resisted conversion were now to be baptised forcibly into the established church. Among the better documented are Louise de La Vallière (with whom he had five children; 1661–67), Bonne de Pons d'Heudicourt (1665), Catherine Charlotte de Gramont (1665), Françoise-Athénaïs, Marquise de Montespan (with whom he had seven children; 1667–80), Anne de Rohan-Chabot (1669–75), Claude de Vin des Œillets (one child born in 1676), Isabelle de Ludres (1675–78), and Marie Angélique de Scorailles (1679–81), who died at age 19 in childbirth. [57] This discrimination did not encounter much Protestant resistance, and a steady conversion of Protestants occurred, especially among the noble elites. [31] The dowry was never paid and would later play a part persuading his maternal first cousin Charles II of Spain to leave his empire to Philip, Duke of Anjou (later Philip V of Spain), the grandson of Louis XIV and Maria Theresa. [4] An adherent of the concept of the divine right of kings, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralised state governed from the capital. Moreover, a mob of angry Parisians broke into the royal palace and demanded to see their king. Louis generously supported the royal court of France and those who worked under him. Unlike that which preceded it, tales of sordid intrigue and half-hearted warfare characterized this second phase of upper-class insurrection. From farther afield, Siam dispatched an embassy in 1684, reciprocated by the French magnificently the next year under Alexandre, Chevalier de Chaumont. 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